Welding uses various energy sources: an electric arc, electric current, gas flame, friction, laser radiation, ultrasound, and electron beam. Advances in the technology allow now to weld not only in factories, but also in various outside conditions, underwater, and even in outer space. The welding process is always related to the risk of fire, electric shock, toxic gases poisoning, eye, and other body parts damages by the heat, ultraviolet, infrared radiation, and spatters of molten metal. The process of welding appeared in the Bronze Age, when people began to gain experience in the metals processing for making tools, military weapons, jewelry, and other products. The first known method of welding was forge welding. It provided the high enough quality of joining at that time, especially when working with plastic metals, such as copper.
Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China - Journal - Elsevier
Forge welding Introduction: Forge welding comes under the category of solid state welding process used to join two pieces of metal by heating them to higher temperatures and hammering it forcefully. Forge welding process is one of the simplest methods of welding metals. It has been in use since ancient times. Forge welding can be used to join combinations of like and unlike metals.
Abstract Friction stir welding is solid state welding and involves heating the metal with a suitable amount of pressure so that homogeneous and complete microstructural welding is possible without melting of the parts to be joined. The process uses a rotating tool with a profiled pin that penetrates the parts to be joined; the tool then starts to travel along the join line. By keeping the tool rotating and moving it along the join line to be welded, the softened material due to the frictional heat is stirred and mixed together by the rotating pin forming a weld in solid state without melting. Frictional heat generated by rotation of the tool due to the high compressive pressure and shearing action of the shoulder along the joint line causes a softened zone of material without melting. Localized severe deformation around the tool results in refinement of the microstructure and the material flow produces coalescence and formation of a weld.
Phd Thesis Friction Stir Welding. Pay individuals to write papers. Proposal For Thesis. A microstructural analysis in to the stationary shoulder corner friction stir welding of aluminium alloys. PhD thesis.