Testing an experimental drug or medical procedure is usually an extremely lengthy process, sometimes lasting several years. The overall procedure is divided into a series of stages known as phases which are described below. Clinical testing on humans can only begin after a pre-clinical phase, involving laboratory studies in vitro and tests on animals, which has shown that the experimental drug is considered safe and effective. However, no animal is sufficiently similar to humans even genetically modified ones to make human testing unnecessary. For this reason, the experimental drug must also be tested on humans. Whilst a certain amount of testing can be carried out by means of computer modelling and by isolating cells and tissue , it becomes necessary at some point in time to test the drug on a living creature.
Sample Essay on Stem Cell Research: A Historical and Scientific Overview
Defining the Ethics of Stem Cell Research : NPR
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Ethical and legal debate and implications of stem cell research - Essay Example
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