Toward the end of , a massive new region of magnetic field erupted on the Sun's surface next to an existing sunspot. The powerful collision of magnetic energy produced a series of potent solar flares, causing turbulent space weather conditions at Earth. In research published in the journal Science , the solar scientists who recorded those images have pinpointed for the first time ever exactly when and where the explosion released the energy that heated spewing plasma to energies equivalent to 1 billion degrees in temperature. With data collected in the microwave spectrum, they have been able to provide quantitative measurements of the evolving magnetic field strength directly following the flare's ignition and have tracked its conversion into other energy forms -- kinetic, thermal and superthermal -- that power the flare's explosive 5-minute trip through the corona. To date, these changes in the corona's magnetic field during a flare or other large-scale eruption have been quantified only indirectly, from extrapolations, for example, of the magnetic field measured at the photosphere -- the surface layer of the Sun seen in white light. These extrapolations do not permit precise measurements of the dynamic local changes of the magnetic field in the locations and at time scales short enough to characterize the flare's energy release.
Monster flare from Proxima Centauri dwarfs any ever seen from the Sun – Astronomy Now
Disclaimer : This page is kept for historical purposes, but the content is no longer actively updated. July 23, If an asteroid big enough to knock modern civilization back to the 18th century appeared out of deep space and buzzed the Earth-Moon system, the near-miss would be instant worldwide headline news. Two years ago, Earth experienced a close shave just as perilous, but most newspapers didn't mention it. Baker, along with colleagues from NASA and other universities, published a seminal study of the storm in the December issue of the journal Space Weather. Their paper, entitled "A major solar eruptive event in July ," describes how a powerful coronal mass ejection CME tore through Earth orbit on July 23,
Solar Max Research Paper
Rain is a common phenomenon on Earth. There is a similar phenomenon on the Sun, called coronal rain. It is related to the coronal heating and magnetic field, and plays a fundamental role in the mass cycle between the hot, tenuous corona and the cool, dense chromosphere. Coronal rain usually takes place in post-flare loops and the non-flaring active region coronal loops. It is generally classified into two categories: flare-driven and quiescent coronal rain, depending on its relation to the flare.
Solar flares are short-term outbursts on the sun, caused by the sudden release of energy stored in twisted magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere. Flares are more contained than coronal mass ejections but still release up to 10 25 joules of energy—the energy equivalent of ten million volcanic eruptions. They can last just a few minutes or up to several hours. Flares occur in active regions, areas on the sun where the magnetic fields are very strong. In this ultraviolet light image of the sun on the right, the active regions stand out as bright spots or clusters of spots.